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Broadening the knowledge about the hydrogen decrepitation of the NdFeB type materials is needed to better service the process e.g. for recycling (at room temperature only 4 out of 10 scrap magnets undergo decrepitation which is likely to be the result of the number and character of pin holes in the electroplated coatings and/or to possible ...

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The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... Hydrogen decrepitation (HD)/hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination (HDDR) is a process used in manufacturing REPM and carried out as pretreatment before green body sintering. During hydrogenation, the Nd-rich grain boundary phase in NdFeB magnets initially absorbs hydrogen forming Nd hydride: [ 49 ].A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold.

hydrogen uptake (2043.76 μmol∙g-1) was received for conditions 4 bar and room temperature, while the lowest (925.27 μmol∙g -1 ) for 1 bar at 400 0 C (Figure 4). At room temperature (29NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ...

A Hydrogen Decrepitation Press-Less Process (HD-PLP) recycling method for recycling of anisotropic NdFeB magnets is demonstrated. The method combines hydrogen decrepitation (HD) disintegration of the initial magnet, powder sieving and the Press-Less Process (PLP), where hydride powder is sintered in a graphite mold.

Hydrogen decrepitation process has been applied for the first time for the direct recycling of SmCo 5 magnets. Industrially produced sintered SmCo ... Nowadays, NdFeB magnets represent more than 90% of the REE permanent magnets production. But, SmCo magnets have much higher coercivity and better temperature resistance, and many experts expect ...So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... The room temperature hydrogenation causes decrepitation of the material, where the Nd-rich material forms NdH 2.7 and the Nd 2 Fe 14 B matrix grains form an interstitial hydrogen solution. The material expands by ∼5% and because of its brittle nature and differential expansion, undergoes decrepitation [16] .Dec 20, 2020 · Extraction of NdFeB from rotors using hydrogen. Seven semi-embedded rotors and non-embedded rotors were processed separately in two experiments. All the magnets in individual slots were scored in concentric circles using an angle grinder to provide a fresh surface for the hydrogen, as shown in Fig. 3, 15–30 min before being loaded into the ...

Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is based on the selective synthesis of neodymium hydrides though the reaction of hydrogen gas with neodymium located in the Nd-Fe-B magnet. HD process was originally designed and patented by Harris et al. (1979) as a way to break down SmCo and Sm 2(Co,Fe,Cu,Zr) alloys. 5 17.

In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the …

Feb 9, 2023 · Abstract The process of hydrogen decrepitation of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy in wide temperature and pressure ranges has been studied. The choices of the chemical composition of the (Nd, Pr, Dy)(Fe, Co)2.6 alloy and the method of production of the initial alloy based on out-of-furnace calcium–thermal reduction are substantiated. The introduction of dysprosium into the alloy ... Sep 14, 2000 · This way of powdering known as hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is a well-established stage of manufacturing technologies of sintered [2], [3] and bonded [4] Nd–Fe–B magnets. The interstitial hydrogen in the ferromagnetic Nd 2 Fe 14 B phase reduces significantly its anisotropy field H A. That is why desorption of hydrogen is necessary in order ... Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by …(2020) Piotrowicz et al. Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy. Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including hard disk drives (HDDs). The key elements in manufacturing NdFeB magnets are rare earth elements (REE... International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Volume 24, Issues 2–3, 1 March 1999, Pages 257-261. Application of hydrogen vibration milling in theprocessing of NdFeB and (Nd, Pr)FeB permanent magnets. Author links open overlay panel R.S Mottram 1, V Yartys 2, P.W Guegan 1, I.r Harris 1. Show more.During the hydrogenation process, a volume expansion takes place, which promotes the formation of transgranular and intergranular cracks, causing the breakup of the material [29].Fig. 1 shows the different types of fracture that can occur during the hydrogen decrepitation process. The hydrogenation of the grain boundary phase can lead to an …

Hydrogen Decrepitation is a process step used in the production of Neodymium magnets to create extremely small grains in the material. Neodymium magnets must have very …The decrepitation process and related changes in the sample temperature are analysed to explain the experimentally observed weight gain curve of a Nd–Fe–B sample due to hydrogen uptake. It is shown that the expansion of the specific surface resulting from decrepitation of the sample is the most important parameter controlling …NdFeB magnets are used in wind turbines and hybrid electric vehicles and are instrumental in progression toward a low-carbon economy. Recycling rare-earth elements (REEs) from NdFeB magnet waste is an important step toward building a sustainable REE supply chain. In this study, we describe an electrochemical process to selectively extract REEs from NdFeB magnet waste at room temperature. First ... The intrinsic magnetic coercivity (H ci) of Nd‐Fe‐B‐based permanent magnet material is profoundly affected by hydrogen absorbed during the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process for producing anisotropic powders from bulk anisotropic hot‐deformed MAGNEQUENCH (MQ) magnets.Hydrogen (H) content and x‐ray diffraction …Jan 1, 2018 · High-temperature demagnetization can, however, cause melting of components, e.g., plastics, glue, etc. Hydrogen decrepitation (Table 8.3), a more efficient alternative, has been suggested for processing of HDDs [34], [35]. The NdFeB magnets absorb hydrogen, expanding in volume with about 5%, which causes breaking into coarse granules or powder. Aug 4, 2022 · One of the most promising solutions with regards to extraction of end-of-life (EOL) magnets is to apply hydrogen decrepitation and to physically separate the Nd-Fe-B as a demagnetized...

The oxidation kinetics in air of a commercial NdFeB magnet have been investigated over the temperature range 335–500°C. The oxide microstructure has been characterized by SEM, XRD and cross-sectional TEM. The results show that the external scale formed consists of an outer layer of Fe2O3 and an inner layer of Fe3O4 but that the principal degradation …

Abstract. In this paper we describe and discuss the use of hydrogen in the processing ofNdFeB-type magnets. The roles of hydrogen in the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) and hydrogenation, disproportionation, desorption and recombination (HDDR) processes are considered together with the characteristics of the magnets produced by …So exposure at LOW temperature to hydrogen leads the NdFeB pieces to react via intergranular fracturation (decrepitation), the mass of Nd2Fe14B grains forminfg a metal hydride with max ... In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. Received 21st February 2020, Accepted 5th March 2020. meric portion. The PA-free magnet powder was found to retain >90% of its original magnetic properties. Two epoxy-bonded magnets produced with this recycled magnet powder showed magnetic properties. DOI: 10.1039/d0gc00647e. Hydrogen Decrepitation and Recycling of NdFeB-type Sintered Magnets. Miha Zakotnik, E. Devlin, +1 author. A. Williams. Published 2006. Materials Science, Engineering. Journal of Iron and Steel Research International. View via Publisher. Save to Library.Hydrogen absorption/adsorption properties of high coercivity NdDyFeCoNbCuB sintered magnets were determined. Hydrogenation kinetics were analyzed using both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrogenation of the Nd-rich intergranular phase results in a rather broad and large peak …Hydrogen decrepitation and recycling of NdFeB-type sintered magnets. M Zakotnik, E Devlin, IR Harris, AJ Williams. Journal of iron and steel research, international 13, 289-295, 2006. 57: 2006: Life cycle assessment of emerging technologies on value recovery from hard disk drives.The behavior of hydrogen absorption in the NdFeB Hydrogen Decrepitation process is affected by the shape of the NdFeB alloy, pressure and temperature curves of the reaction process, which makes the reaction process with characteristics of nonlinear, time-varying parameters and coupling. In this study, we proposed a state space modeling method to …The ultrafine magnet waste (particle size < 1 µm) contained around 50% rare earths mainly in the form of hydroxides as they are generated from the hydrogen decrepitation. The major phases in ultrafine NdFeB waste were Nd(OH) 3, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe phases. When ultrafine magnet waste was leached with hydrofluoric acid, all the iron …

Abstract: Hydrogen decrepitation (HD) is an effective and environmentally friendly technique for recycling of neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets. During the HD process, the NdFeB breaks

Each magnet was exposed to hydrogen and the decrepitation behaviour observed. The anisotropic samples were found to decrepitate exclusively from the ends of the rods whereas the isotropic magnets were attacked by the hydrogen at all points on their surface. Bulk corrosion studies in steam gave comparable results, the oriented sample …

NdFeB-based alloys and magnets also react readily with hydrogen, and this has been exploited by the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process [4]. During HD the material is exposed to hydrogen (at room temperature) and initially the Nd-rich phase absorbs hydrogen (represented approximately by Eq.Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) has been used as an efficient and economical method in producing coarse NdFeB powder. This article studied the effects of hydrogen on the Nd-Dy-Fe-B magnets, such as HD ...May 8, 2023 · An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at ... The desorption of hydrogen from NdFeB powder and unmilled material produced using hydrogen decrepitation as a premilling technique was investigated using a mass spectrometer to monitor the hydrogen partial pressure in the system as the sample was heated under vacuum from room temperature to approximately 1000 degrees C. A …The subject of this paper is method (4) together with other aspects of the use of hydrogen in the processing of NdFeB-type magnets. 2. The hydrogen decrepitation process The manufacture of rare earth-transition metal magnets by the HD route was first proposed in a 1978 patent by Harris et al. [7].magnets. The thermal and mechanical impact of the hydrogen decrepitation process was assessed during hydrogen processing. For all forms of sintered NdFeB scrap the surface condition of the magnets is important as oxidation has been shown to inhibit the onset of the hydrogen decrepitation process. In this Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. The resultant powder has been subsequently processed in one of two ways in order to produce ...Jul 1, 2002 · The effective diffusivity of hydrogen in NdFeB magnets is reduced with Co and Ga additions and as a result of the texture induced in the microstructure via die-upsetting process. In addition to the results shown in Fig. 8 , the thermal desorption behaviour related to the hydrogenation of a die-upset MQU-G magnet is different for the two ... An effective and complete processing route for the recycling of sintered Nd-Fe-B scrap magnets was proposed. Sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were subjected to the Hydrogen Decrepitation (HD) process at various temperatures in the range of 50–300 °C, at two different pressures, 50 kPa and 200 kPa, followed by vacuum dehydrogenation in …High-temperature oxidation resistance of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powder is of great importance for its application in bonded magnet fields. In this work, the refinement and surface modification of Nd–Fe–B magnetic powders were integrated and achieved simultaneously. The effects of phosphoric acid, isopropyl tris-(dioctyl pyrophosphate …Another example of the coercivity recovery in crushed NdFeB-type sintered magnets was made by adding the DyF 3 salt [8]. Furthermore, the production of anisotropic RE–Fe–B–Cu powders have also been produced by hydrogen decrepitation of hot deformed ingots [9] followed by degassing.

We report investigations on the processing by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of RE2Fe14B (RE = Nd, Pr…) powders obtained by hydrogen decrepitation of …Electrolytic Hydrogen Decrepitation of NdFeB Magnets Under Ambient Conditions. V. Kaplan, Y. Feldman, …, I. Lubomirsky. Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy • Volume 8, Issue 3 • 1 September 2022. 1 citation; Scopus record. Article. 2D Pb-Halide Perovskites Can Self-Heal Photodamage Better than 3D Ones.Rare earth magnets based upon neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) are employed in many high tech applications, including h... Skip to main content. Sign In Create account . Journal Article OPEN ACCESS. THE USE OF THERMAL HYDROGEN DECREPITATION TO RECYCLE Nd-Fe-B MAGNETS FROM ELECTRONIC WASTE. Piotrowicz A; Pietrzyk S; …Instagram:https://instagram. todaypercent27s rosary saturdayfiesta 5p 10 ecoboost hybrid st line x 125cv powershift 3928698dunkinpercent27 donuts drink menuwhatpercent27s that emoji mean Abstract. Some fully dense, sintered NdFeB-type magnets (employed in VCM disc drives) have been subjected to a recycling process using the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process. After a brief milling treatment, the powder was aligned, pressed and re-sintered and this procedure was repeated four times with a progressive fall in the density …Dec 20, 2020 · After the hydrogen decrepitation, the hydrogenated NdFeB powder needs to be purified to remove all the impurities. This purification process has to be done in an inert atmosphere to avoid oxidation. Various authors have noted that both oxygen and carbon have been shown to have detrimental effects on the sintering process for NdFeB ( Lopes et al ... cennikthe anchor fish and chips Sprecher, et al. [8] compared the environmental impact of producing virgin NdFeB magnets to producing recycled NdFeB magnets from waste computer hard disk drives (HDDs) using hydrogen decrepitation. The results showed that recycling in general was more favorable to the environment, and this was especially true for manual … aarp atandt discount NdFeB sintered magnet material has been developed. The magnets are produced by powder metallurgy route involving hydrogen decrepitation technique for making fine powder. After melting and casting ...Oct 30, 2018 · The Hydrogen Decrepitation and the Hydrogen Disproportionation Desorption Recombination processes for the preparation and the recycling of the two industrially produced phases of SmCo alloys, SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, are reviewed. The effects of the chemical composition, the microstructure, the exposure time, the hydrogen pressure, and the temperature on the hydrogen absorption are discussed. The ... In this paper it is demonstrated that hydrogen could play a vital role in this process. Fully dense sintered NdFeB-type magnets have been subjected to the hydrogen decrepitation (HD) process.